Australia, Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013 (Aus. PIDA)

Belgium, September 15, 2013. – Law on the Termination of a Suspected Violation of the Integrity in a Federal Administrative Authority by a Member of his Staff, (Belgium WPA),

Bosnia, Law on Whistleblower Protection in the Institutions of Bosnia-Herzegovina, (Bosnia WPA) (2014)

Canada, The Public Interest Disclosure (Whistleblower Protection) Act (2006) (Canada PIDA)

Great Britain, Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (UK PIDA)

Ghana, Whistleblower Act (2006) (Ghana WPA)

Hungary, Act CLXV of 2013 on Complaints and Public Interest Disclosures (Hungary PIDA)

India, The Whistleblowers Protection Act, 2011 (India WPA)

Ireland, Protected Disclosures Act 2014 (Irish PDA)

Israel, Protection of Employees (Exposure of Offenses of Unethical Conduct and Improper Administration) Law, 5757-1997 (Israel PEL)

Jamaica, The Protected Disclosures Act 2011 (Jam. PDA)

Japan, Whistleblower Protection Act (Act No. 122 of 2004) (Japan WPA)

Korea, Act on the Protection of Public Interest Whistleblowers, Act No. 10472, Mar. 29, 2011 (Korea ACA)

Kosovo, Law No. 04/L-043 on Protection of Informants (Kosovo LPI)

Liberia, Executive Order No. 62, Extension of Executive Order No. 43 Protection of Whistleblower (Liberia EO)

Luxembourg, Act 6104 of 13 February 2011 (Lux WPA)

Malaysia, Act 711, Whistleblower Protection Act 2010 (Malaysia WPA)

Mozambique, Witness and Protection Act 2012 (Moz. WPA)

New Zealand, Public Disclosure Act 2000 (NZ PDA)

Norway, The Work Environment Act 2005 (Norway Work Act)

Peru, Law No. 29542, Law on Whistle-blowers’ Protection in the Public Sector of June 2010 (Peru WPA)

Romania, Romanian Law No. 571-2004, Law concerning the protection of personnel from public authorities, public institutions and from other establishments who signalize legal infractions (Romania WPA)

Serbia, 2014-12-01 Law on the Protection of Whistleblowers (Serbia WPA)

Slovakia, Act of 16 October on certain measures concerning the reporting of antisocial activities

and on amendments to certain laws (Slovakia WPA)

Slovenia, Integrity and Prevention of Corruption Act (Slovenia Anticorruption Act), Articles 23-25. (Slovenia ACA)

South Africa, Protected Disclosures Act of 2000 (S.A. PDA)

Uganda, The Whistleblowers Protection Act, 2010 (Uganda WPA)

United States, Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 (WPA) and 48 private sector laws

Zambia, The Public Interest Disclosure (Protection of Whistleblowers) Act, 2010

(Act No. 4 of 2010) (Zambia PIDA)


Australia PIDA, Provision (Prov.) sec. 10, 15. (all civil and criminal liability)

Bosnia WPA, Art. 6. (criminal liability)

Ghana WPA, Art. 18 (any civil and criminal liability)

Hungary PIDA, Art. 11 (all civil and criminal liability — “any action … which may cause disadvantage”)

India WPA, Ch. IV.11 (1) (protection extends to all persons or public servants, although only for protection against government retaliation)

Irish PDA Part III.14 and 15 (civil and criminal liability)

Jamaica PDA, Sec. 15(2) (civil and criminal)

Liberia EO (civil and criminal liability, including an affirmative defense against defamation actions)

Malaysia WPA, Sec. 7(b), 9 (civil and criminal liability)

New Zealand PDA, Sec. 18(1) (immunity from civil and criminal proceedings)

Serbia WPA, Art. 2(2) (“any natural person,” including owners of corporations; Art. 2(7) — all civil and criminal liability (“any action …. which puts [whistleblowers] at a disadvantage”)

Uganda WPA, secs. 2-3, covers “a person”); sec. 10 (immunity from civil and criminal liability, including override of secrecy laws)

Zambia PIDA, sec. 56 (absolute immunity through public interest defense for any liability)


The list below does not cover restrictions on disclosures of classified information. The criteria are restrictions for disclosures of unclassified information by national security/law enforcement whistleblowers, or due process anti-retaliation rights that are weak or non-existent compared to the rest of the whistleblower law.

Canada PIDA (No provision to override Official Secrets Act)

India WPA, Ch. I.2 (armed services exempt); Ch. IV. 24098 (1) (national security/foreign policy exemption for cooperation with investigation of disclosures)

Ireland PIDA, Pt. IV.18 (public disclosure rights limited beyond classified information)

Jam. PDA (No provision to override Official Secrets Act)

Japan WPA, Art. 7 (secondary intra-agency controlled parallel system for national security and military personnel)

New Zealand PDA, Sec. 12 (May only make disclosures to the Inspector General of Intelligence and Security)

Norway Work Act, Introduction (excludes military aviation)

Peru WPA, Sec. 7 (protections do not apply to national defense or intelligence employees)

Slovakia WPA, Secs. 1(3), 21 Law does not apply to military or intelligence operations, or to classified information.

South Africa PDA (No provision to override Official Secrets Act)

United Kingdom PIDA (No provision to override Official Secrets Act)

United States, 5 USC 2302(a)(2)(C) (government employees); 10 USC 2409(f), 41 USC 4712(f) (government contractors)